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Prevalence and incidence of hypertension in the global HIV-infected population: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

12 Oct 2017


Hypertension, representing one of the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors, is thought to increase in individuals living with HIV as well as in general population, but summarised global data on the topic are scarce. We conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence/incidence of hypertension in the global HIV-infected population.

Methods and analysis

This review will include observational studies conducted among HIV-infected people, which reported prevalence/incidence of hypertension or enough data for its appraisal. We will consider published and unpublished studies from 1 January 2007 to 31 May 2017. Relevant records will be searched using PubMed/Medline, Global Index Medicus, Web of Science and EMBASE. Reference lists of eligible papers and relevant review articles will be screened. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies and extract data, with discrepancies resolved by consensus or by arbitration of a third investigator. Methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using the scale developed by Hoy and colleagues. Funnel plots and Egger’s test will be used to determine publication bias. The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate. To keep the effect of studies with extremely small or extremely large estimates on the overall estimate to a minimum, the variance of the study-specific prevalence/incidence will be stabilised with the Freeman-Tukey single arcsine transformation. The heterogeneity will be evaluated by the ² test on Cochrane’s Q statistic. Results will be presented by geographic region, income and antiretroviral therapy status.

Ethics and dissemination

This study is based on published data; therefore, ethical approval is not a requirement. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial registration number


Click here to view the full article which appeared in BMJ Open

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